With about 1.2 billion inhabitants, India is the most populated state in the world after China. About 72 percent of the population are Indo-Aryans, 25 percent are Dravids, who live mainly in southern India. Three percent are other groups of peoples.
The number of illegally immigrated Bangladeshis is estimated at up to 20 million. The approximately 100,000 ex-Tibetans who have fled their homeland since the Chinese occupation of Tibet in the 1950s are officially recognized as refugees. Furthermore, about 60,000 Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka live on Indian territory. Federal Republic, which is formed by 29 states and also includes seven federal immediate territories. The proper name of the republic in the two national official languages is Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi) and Republic of India (English). The modern democratic and secular Indian republic has existed since 1949 and since 1950 the constitution of India has been in force.
The Himalayas form the natural northern border of India, in the south the Indian Ocean encloses the national territory. India is bordered by Pakistan, the Tibet Autonomous Region, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh. Other neighboring states in the Indian Ocean are Sri Lanka and the Maldives. In terms of land area, India is the seventh largest country in the world by area.